Archives for posts with tag: diaphragm

Life itself is a school. When we graduate from university and start earning our living, we think we know everything and we act so. However, education never ends with graduation from university. Life-long education. Life teaches us new things. We develop and progress continously throughout our lives. Yoga classes are the same. When we become a yoga instructor, we think that we know everything. How wrong it is. Every class is an interaction and exchange. It is possible for us — the teachers — to learn new things from our students. Also, it is possible for us to develop and progress ourselves with the help of the questions asked by our students.

In the previous week, one of the students asked why we were breathing through the nose in yoga. At first, I could not make up my mind. I could explain why we were inhaling through the nose but I could not explain why we were exhailing through the nose because I had no information in detail. Every word I said would just be a guess. I promised to look into this issue.

Breathing in yoga? Yes, “prana” simply means “breath.” In deeper sense it means “life force” and “physical, mental, intellectual, spiritual and cosmic energy.” “Prana” is the principle of life and consciousness. It is breath, respiration, life, energy and strength.

“Pranayama” is comprised of two words: “Prana” and “ayama.” “Ayama” means extension, stretch, length, expansion, regulation, prolongation, restraint or control. So, “pranayama” means extension of the breath or its control. “Pranayama” consists of inhalation, exhalation and retention. Retention can be done after both inhalation and exhalation. Inhalation stimulates the system whereas exhalation is to throw away the toxins from the body. Retention distributes the energy throughout the body. When we talk about “pranayama”, we talk about movements including horizontal expansion, vertical ascension and circumferential extension of the lungs and the rib cage.

When we breathe in, the chest expans and the lungs fill with fresh oxygen. When we breathe out, the chest narrows and the lungs are emptied. When we hold breath, the heart rate slows down and the heart muscle takes a rest.

Generally, it is possible to talk about four types of respiration:

  1. High/Clavicular (collar bones) respiration: The neck muscles activate only the upper parts of the lungs.
  2. Intercostal/midbreathing Only the central prats of the lungs are activated.
  3. Low/diaphragmatic breathing: The lower parts of the lungs are activated chiefly whereas the top and central parts remain less active.
  4. In total/pranayamic breathing: The entire lungs are sed to ther fullest capacity. When we inhale, the chest and abdomen rises and when we exhale, all these parts distinguish. The chest and abdomen is lifted up, forward and to the sides.

In yoga classes, “pranayamic breathing” is preferred. In classes, teachers ask students to breathe in and out through the nose. The air is cleaned and warmed up with the help of the structure of the nose. The air then goes down through the neck and reaches the lungs. When the diaphragm muscle contracts, the ribs move up and forward (intercostal muscles), the lungs expand and fill with air. When exhailing, the diaphragm relaxes, the ribs move down and inward (intercostal muscles) and lungs shrink, giving out the air.

When we expand in yoga classes, when we extend the spine, when we open the arms to the sides or lift them, when we are getting out of a forward bend or twist, when we are rising up from a pose against gravity, we inhale. When we close our bodies, when we bring the arms to the center, when we bend forward or twist or do something in line with the gravity, we exhale.

We have told that the reason why we breathe in through the nose is to clean and warm up the air. So why do we prefer to exhale through the nose? When we breathe out through the nose, the air exhaled absorbs moisture, reducing dehydration. When we breathe out through the nose, it is good for oral health.  Mouth breathing causes a drying out of the gums, increasing the acidity in the mouth. Exhaling through the nose reduces snoring and sleep apnoea and enables a good sleep. Moreover, breathing through the nose regulates the volume of air breathed, so that it can effectively match the body’s oxygen needs.

Also, breathing through the mouth causes overbreathing or hyperventilation as we use the upper chest rather than the diaphragm. It dries the airways, causing coughing and worsening of asthma.

Also, breathing through the nose is related with the carbondioxide level in our lungs and blood. When the carbondioxide level is normal, enough oxygen is sent to our tissues and brain. Most of us believe that carbondioxide is bad for us. However, if no carbondioxide, then we cannot get the oxygen our bodies need. When the carbondioxide level is in proper level, it triggers the red blood cells to release oxygen they carry.

We provide the carbondioxide our bodies use through our own bodies, not the air. Therefore, if we do not breathe correctly, we cannot produce the proper level of carbondioxide we need.

The lungs store carbondioxide. If the carbondioxide is under a certain level, we feel some imbalance and some symptoms show up. When there is enough carbondioxide in the lungs, the respiration is done through the diaphragm.

When we breathe out through the mouth, the carbondioxide level in our lungs and blood reduces and less oxygen is sent to the brain and tissues. When the carbondioxide level is less than normal, the blood PH degree rises toward its alkaline limit and a message is sent to the brain. The brain stops the diaphragm to stop the respiration and carbondioxide level increases. When the blood pH is restored and oxygen flows again, the brain tells the diaphragm to start to move and the next breath is allowed.

If we do not use the diaphragm as the main muscle of respiration, we face problems in regulating the carbondioxide level in our lungs, When we breathe out through the mouth, we only use the upper chest not the diaphragm. We can feel tense in the chest and have problems in respiration, We regulate the carbondioxide level we will throw away the body, thanks to the diaphragm.

For all these reasons, we prefer inhaling and exhaling through the nose. In spiritual and mental dimension, breathing through the nose calms down the body and breath and silences the mind. When we breathe in and out through the nose, the breath is extended, deepened and thus, the mind is calmed down.

As a result, “prana” is not just “breath.” It is “life force.” “Prana” is breath, respiration, life, energy and strength. Yoga classes are a part of life and it is possible to learn new things during classes. The aspiration of students to learn new things make them ask questions to questions, which in return develop and progress teachers. If one of the students had not asked me why we were breathing through the nose in yoga, I would not have made such a deep research. Every moment is an opportunity for us to develop and progress. Every yoga class is an opportunity for us to develop. What is important is to open to development and progress. I am so glad I have so many wonderful students. Namas’te.

Breath… The most important source of nutrition of our body and soul… Can you think of a life withouth breath? Will you manage to live without breath? So, breath is our main source of nutrition. Breath is also our source of nutrition when doing yoga. We flow from one asana to another with breath. So what type of breath should we use in our yoga practice?

2013-05-29 21.35.09
We mention “prana” when we talk about breath in yoga philosophy. Prana means “life force.” However, in its simplest form, we talk about “breath” in our yoga practice when we say “prana.”
As we talk about breath, we should also mention “pranayama.” Pranamayama consists of two separate words, including “prana+yama” and “prana+ayama.” Do you wonder why have I talked about two different combinations? Because two different combinations end up in two different meanings. When we say “prana+ayama”, we mean expansion of breath. However when we say “prana+yama”, we mean constraint of breath. How interesting to see that only one letter can make such a big difference! In fact, our only aim is to expand our breath by first controlling with certain practices and to expand and increase our life force.
After so much information about breath, let’s discuss how we should use breath in yoga classes. I am usually asked this question in my classes. I used “ujjayi pranayama” not only during the hatha and vinyasa yoga teacher training program but also the classes I joined and my own internship class. “Ujjayi” means “victorious” in Sanskrit language. We use this breath in our hatha and vinyasa classes because it warms our bodies up. As it warms the bodies, it reduces the risk of injury and helps us deepen in asanas.
The “ujjayi” breath can be performed by narrowing the back of the throat. If you haven’t tested so far, I can give you a clue. Imagine that you are at home in a cold winter night. You come near the window and you exhale to the window and make a vapor on the window. Or we may say that you are inhaling with the sound “saaa” and exhaling with the sound “haaa”. After testing this breath with open-mouth for some time, you may close your mouth and start inhaling and exhaling through the nose. When doing so, you narrow the back of your throat and work this breath. Some call it “ocean breath.” Maybe it’s because they compare it with the sound of waves of the ocean. Who knows?
Again after such a brief information, let’s come back to the breath I use in my own classes. I am used to “ujjayi” breath so I continue using it in my own yoga classes. However, do I force all my students to use this breath? No. Breath is our life force. Therefore, I think we should not force it. If students are new to yoga, they can have difficulties in performing ujjayi breathing when trying to do the asanas. So, why should they try to do something by force? What is important is an expansion, a relief and stretch, isn’t it? To this end, I do not force my students to use a certain type of breath. First of all, I advise them to inhale and exhale through the nose because some people still have difficulties in doing so. After they manage to do so, now it’s time to deepen the breath. Deep inhales and exhales. Expanding the breath. Then comes “ujjayi” breathing when flowing from one asana to another. Because in my opinion, what is important is to remember to inhale and exhale when practicing asanas and not to hold breath. In further stages comes different “pranayama” techniques like “kapalabhati”, “nadi shodhana” and “bhastrika.” Either at the beginning or end of the class, depending on the impact of the class I am planning. I am using these breath techniques to make student feel a certain effect in classes.
Breath? How long can we live without breath? Therefore, “prana” and “pranayama” are two things that should take place not only in yoga but also in our daily lives. The final aim in yoga is to perform pranayamic respiration. In such respiration, we use both our lungs and our diaphragm. We use our lungs at full capacity and spread the breath to upper, lower, middle parts of our lungs as well as both of the sides.
For all these reasons, I allow my students to use whatever breath they want to use in my classes. We aim expansion, relief and stretch in a yoga practice. So let’s try to internally and externally expand when inhaling. Take the energy from the outside world when inhaling and to get rid of all emotions and thoughts when exhaling. To surrender to a higher subject when our lungs are breathless. Whether yoga asanas or pranayama, to expand, deepen and open up in our yoga practice. Only such a breath, nothing more…